America-Letters from a Norwegian Mother and Pioneer in Iowa (Norwegian Emigration Literature)

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Change Language. Arabic English. Important Links. Follow Us. App Download. Material from the Norwegian consulate in Brisbane from onwards has never been handed over to the National Archives of Norway. Also, annual reports from the consulate in Brisbane were published for a period in the s in Uddrag af Aarsberetninger for de forenede Rigers Konsuler Extracts from Annual Reports from the Consuls of the United Kingdoms.

As for statistics, official population data such as NOS No. Utvandringsstatistikk Departementet for Sociale Saker, Kristiania, is of little use for the purpose of this study. Firstly, the official Norwegian statistics does not include all migrants, as deserted seamen or those travelling independently were not counted. Secondly, the data is not geographically specific enough; i.

Passenger lists are held in archives in Australia, but for the most part they do not include the nationality of the passengers. Besides, Norwegians came to Queensland in a multitude of ways. At departure from the North German port, information about the passengers was systematically recorded by the shipping companies and submitted to the authorities.

These records have been collected and digitised by family historians Rosemary and Eric Kopittke and published as a database, Emigrants from Hamburg to Australasia publ. Destination is not always stated precisely. The Hamburg database has been useful in various ways, most importantly as a statistical source to gauge the extent of the assisted migration in the s and annual fluctuations during that decade. For example, four people from Charlottenberg in Sweden are classified as Norwegians. Most likely, they travelled via Kristiania to Australia.

However, all in all the vast majority of listings seem reliable and for statistical purposes I have used the whole data set, i. Despite a slight overlap, the registers contain emigrants bound for Queensland or Brisbane. Taken together, the two series represent a parallel to the Hamburg departure lists, covering mainly the organised emigration in the s.

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However, the Norwegian lists have many gaps. Because of this, the Hamburg database has been used as the core quantitative source for studying the s assisted migration. I have also perused some anonymous letters published in newspapers see below. My interest has been any information the letters have conveyed concerning impressions of Queensland and life and settlement in the new home country. A few autobiographical works in the form of reminiscences penned at old age have been useful.

These are written in retrospect and may have been edited as to place the writer in a good light.

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America-Letters from a Norwegian Mother and Pioneer in Iowa (Norwegian Emigration Literature) - Kindle edition by Gro Svendsen, Per A. Holst. Download it. AmericaLetters from a Norwegian Mother and Pioneer in Iowa Norwegian Emigration Literature Book Free To Download.

A number of second- or third-generation accounts have also been available and sometimes proved relevant in conjunction with other sources. The selection of letters and other autobiographical writings is incidental, discovered through the efforts outlined earlier.

Therefore we cannot dismiss the possible existence of other manuscripts which may alter the story of the Queensland Norwegians. What is more, we do not know whether the available material is representative. Family history records Thanks to the effort outlined previously, a large number of different family history papers were received, i.

These records are secondary sources at best. Quality-wise the material spans from almost professionally written and referenced manuscripts based on meticulous research into archival sources to simple family charts with very little information except names and dates of birth and death. In most cases the research has been done by ancestors one, two or three generations down the line from the migrants themselves.

The material has been used to illuminate the statistical data and in conjunction with other sources to piece together the life stories of some of the Norwegians. The main problem with family history papers is anecdotal evidence; stories typically passed on through family tradition with no contemporary written records to back them up. Such anecdotes often relate to everyday life of the settlers, but with no independent confirmation their reliability comes into question.

This applies to the following papers fully available online from the National Library of Australia at trove. The total result was several thousand hits, most of which was irrelevant. Still, numerous useful items were found. Additional searches have been done on selected persons or items of interest, also after The newspaper Norden, published in Melbourne from , on a monthly or bi- monthly basis, was aimed at Scandinavians in Australia.

However, reports from Scandinavians in Queensland featured regularly, although primarily related to organised activities. Norden has been studied from its inception in through to Some articles from other Australian publications have also been examined. Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Morgenbladet, Verdens Gang and some other papers all published advertisements for subsidised tickets to Queensland. Furthermore, a handful of letters and stories from Queensland migrants were published in Norwegian newspapers. The letters have much in common: They are all written by relatively newly arrived Queensland travellers and mainly speak of wages and working conditions, but also share some impressions of the new and unknown land.

Although the material content generally agrees with other sources, they may have been edited and published as part of the promotional effort to paint a positive picture of the colony. This is a possibility which has to be taken into account when employing these letters as sources. In general, the letters linger around practical information and future opportunities rather than struggle and failure, but this is not unambiguous.

One point of criticism is that Nordmandsforbundet, much like Norden, primarily reported on activities among parts of the urban middle-class with fairly strong links back to their homeland.

Personal communication Various items of information were related through meetings with, as well as letters and email correspondence from, descendants of Norwegian immigrants and others with an interest in the topic. Most was anecdotal evidence, but some of it has nevertheless shed useful light on certain topics. Wherever such material has been employed it is referenced appropriately. A note on currency Australia was part of the British monetary union from the latter half of the 19th century, trading in Pound Sterling until the adaption of the Australian pound in with equal value.

Norway used the Speciedaler Spd. This discussion is a crucial pretext for the topic in chapter 3 which deals with the number of arrivals at various times and in various categories.

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Chapter 4 is an analysis of occupational participation and integration. In chapter 5 we present a detailed analysis of the settlement pattern, i. Chapter 6 examines ethnic adjustment within the hierarchy of various groups in Queensland. In a final concluding chapter, the totality of findings are assessed in an attempt to synthesise the results. In addition, I will present a number of appendices to provide more details on some topics as a supplement for the interested reader.

Thus the Archer family history is outlined in appendix 1, the successful planter Oscar Svensen is portrayed in appendix 2, and the frequent prisoner Halvor Olsen in appendix 3. Appendix 4 gives a discussion of stage-by-stage migration from Norway to Queensland, while the final appendix, no.

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The exchange rate between Norwegian and British and Australian currency was almost constant throughout the whole period from to Yes exactly. And secondly, why would Queensland want Norwegian immigrants? The first is related to any factors which served to encourage, or indeed discourage, Norwegians to migrate to this particular destination. The second is the question of why Scandinavia, including Norway, was seen as a relevant target area when the Queensland government went out looking for settlers. What were the political and practical considerations on this matter?

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In terms of Australia, Koivukangas argues that Scandinavian immigration always has arisen from some special impulse, like adventure, lure of gold, assisted passages to compensate for the long journey, economic opportunities or particularly high wages for seamen. The first refers to macro-conditions in Queensland which were considered favourable, like adventure or good money, but were not exclusive to that particular destination. America and other receiving societies also had their gold rushes and economic success stories.

However, we should also look at what may have held back prospective migrants. The concept does not refer to circumstances that push migrants to leave their homes. Instead, it is meant to cover conditions related to a particular destination that reduce its attractiveness in the minds of prospective migrants.

Ja netop. The possibility of better economic conditions was clearly an attraction. Koivukangas points out that the Scandinavians had an economic motive for migrating to Australia.

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Quakerism had been brought to Norway by prisoners of war held in England between and , and the Friends formed societies in Stavanger and Oslo. Children born in Australia with Norwegian parents are not part of my study. Other colleges and secondary schools operated for a time in the immigrant community, but many of these did not survive. Therefore we cannot dismiss the possible existence of other manuscripts which may alter the story of the Queensland Norwegians. Marcus Lee Hansen , of Danish and Norwegian descent, was a pioneer immigration historian. One of them, Adolph W. The immigrants were occasionally referred to as "guests" in the United States and they were not immune to condescending and disparaging attitudes by old-stock Americans.

He wrote that the working classes in general have good conditions and that craftsmen, farmers and labourers easily can achieve an independent position. Young girls were employed quickly, he wrote, and paid 6 to 10 shillings a week plus rations, an estimate which is supported by another letter in Dagbladet.

These rates are in line with or a bit lower than normal wages for working class occupations in colonial Queensland. This was particularly true for female domestic workers, who in the first half of the s were paid about kroner per year.